International Differences in Marketing-Orientation

A. Introduction

Thorben Buck, Jorge Chajchalac, Robert Hohnsbehn, Dorothea Palka with the friendly assistance of Dennis Juschas

breakfast cereals for dogs

This hand-out illustrates the differences in development status of marketing. The article describes the history of marketing as well as the differences which occur in advertisements, marketing research and comprehension of marketing processes in the following regions and countries: Australia, USA, Poland, Latin America and Central Europe.

1.  What is marketing development?

Today the world is classified in low income, middle income and high income countries. Political, cultural, economic factors and social standings characterise the current development status of marketing. USA is the pioneer in this industry and sets the trends in emerging nations. USA and Europe have got the possibility to invest more financial resources in technology and research than developing countries.

2. Marketing History

America is the pioneer in marketing. The roots are the American Marketing Association, which was founded early 1900s when the National Association of Teachers of Advertisers and American Marketing Society, comprised of marketers and marketing researchers, consolidated to bring together all marketers across all specialties to collaborate and inspire one another. Theory, management and marketing research are developed in by The mother of marketing U.S.A. developed theory, management and marketing research. Here is the summary of marketing history.

Phase 1, Product orientation: This began in the USA already of 20th-century and in Europe after the Second World War. The world is a typical seller’s market. The market leaders were purchasing and manufacturing.

Phase 2, Sales orientation: In the 1950s the world changed from production to sale, but the production still had the top priority.

Phase 3, Marketing orientation: First market segmentation and specialization on individual’s needs in the 1960s.

Phase 4, Environment orientation: Since 1970s marketing includes the consideration of stakeholders and consequently ecological and social aspects.

Phase 5, CRM orientation: Between 80s and 90s central customer values were connectivity and loyalty. Globalisation, short product life cycle, service, different customer wishes and information- and communications technology lead to a new orientation in marketing like CRM.

Phase 6, Dialog orientation: Since 2000 interactive communication via internet & e-mails.  

Phase 7, Today Network orientation: Social-Media, User Generated Content, Crowdsourcing

Counties expenditure on advertising

3. Germany Marketing development stand:

Until the 1960s Germany was a traditional sellers’ market. The range of available products was limited, so every sales strategy was determined by the price and the amount of wares. During the years that followed, more and more sellers advanced to the German market. The long-established sellers lost their strong positions and the market developed to buyers-market. Nowadays Germany had a high development stand in marketing and companies with innovative and creative conceptions are most likely to succeed on the German market.

3.1 Poland Marketing development stand:

Poland has a simply marketing in which only consumption research and advertisement are known. USP, supply-chain, sales-lead-management and customer-service are less applied and investigated than in other nations. Telemarketing isn´t yet explored. The amount of existing market data is very low and only the instinct and judgement are practical in marketing research. Between 1944 and 1989 Poland’s ad was regulated by communism. Only the state used ad to propagandise.  On the 4th of June 1989 the fall of communism took place. In this time a lot of west marketing companies did big business in ad and control about 85 % of the marketing sector in Poland. This was the hour of birth in Polish Marketing.

3.2 Australia Marketing development stand:

Today Australia has an establishment of a multicultural nation, but this happened not freely.  In many respects the Australians try to go their own, individual way. This attitude might refer to Australia’s history as a convict colony and of course it also can be recognized in the Marketing area. It’s a striking fact that Australians are specialized on shocking, scary and sad advertisements which are used to address social problems.

Australia ads are influenced by low-budget advertisements, peculiar humor, songs in older commercials and a wide range of national products like Vegemite. Only big players are active in the area of Social Media .

3.3 Latin America development stand:

Latin America can be compared with Poland. The development of marketing is low. A lot of marketing theory and praxis is taken over from North America. Latin America is increasingly ‘decoupling’ from the US economy. They increase market ties with the Asians and the European Union, expand regional trade and intensify their domestic market. Today Latin America is an highly growing market. For example Argentina’s Advertising industry got an increment of 38,9% from the year 2010 to 2011. This development made the country to attain one of the highest growth in the world.

3.4 USA Marketing development stand:

Finally we talk about the USA, the mother country of Marketing. With a yearly advertising expenditure of over 130 billion US-$ the US is currently the biggest national promotional market. The average US citizen is online for more than 4 hours a day and watches TV for more than 3 hours a day. His or her total daily media consumption adds up to nearly 12 hours. Most of the marketing developments worldwide come from USA. New products like breakfast cereals for dogs, St. Pauli Girl Bear, Milk with smileys or chips in the color of football teams.

Breakfast cerals for dogs

B. Conclusion:

The globalization is still growing. Thanks largely and rapidly expanding of mobile and Internet more people will go online in 2012 than ever before. Language translation technology like WordLens made it easier to read a website, email or advertisement in their own language. Also techniques create the possibility of “everywhere Commerce”. Paying with a plastic credit card is probably going to end soon. In 2012 consumers have many more payment options. They can choose payments like Pay Pal, Google Wallet or their proprietary point of sale option. Every country has his owns challenges, strengths, weaknesses, risks and chances. The marketing management function has to find the right way.

Bibliography and literature:

Germany:

o. V: Kappa die menschliche Sportmarke aus Italien, http://www.gwa.de/images/ja_db/1/JA_Kappa.pdf,  Stand 10.04.2012

o. V. Schöne Trikots können auch funktionell sein http://www.google.de/imgres?q=die+sch%C3%B6nsten+kappa+trikot&hl=de&sa=X&biw=1218&bih=872&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=j9Ehr1M_fCCAYM:&imgrefurl=http://www.stadionwelt-business.de/index.php%3Fhead%3DSchoene-Trikots-koennen-auch-funktionell-sein%26rubrik%3Dvereinsbedarf%26site%3Dnews_view%26news_id%3D1427%26kat%3D%26ukat%3D&docid=GfjjEL31Dz1JIM&imgurl=http://www.stadionwelt-business.de/images/news/1200046647.jpg&w=464&h=469&ei=XHeNT7bBNZD64QTzp7mdDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=139&vpy=156&dur=398&hovh=164&hovw=165&tx=111&ty=104&sig=109488846706901908139&page=1&tbnh=164&tbnw=165&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:66, Stand 12.04.2012

o. V. Kappa http://www.kappastore.com/UK/categorie.asp?IDReparto=41&IDSquadra=0, Stand 15.04.2012

Werner Haizmann, Optimismus des deutschen und europäischen Sportfachhandels weiter ungebrochen in,

http://www.vds-sportfachhandel.de/index.php?id=2&sub=3&DS=387  Stand 15.04.2012

o. V. Historische Entwicklung in, http://www.werbetipps.com/was-ist-marketing/historische-entwicklung/, 17.04.2012

Polen:

Polen Zahlen und Fakten in: http://translate.google.de/translate?hl=de&langpair=en%7Cde&u=http://www.lingo24.com/international_business_intelligence/poland.html, Stand 12.04.2012

Dr. Marta Rabikowska, Kommerzielle TV-Werbung in Polen: http://translate.google.de/translate?hl=de&sl=en&tl=de&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.arts.gla.ac.uk%2FSlavonic%2FEpicentre%2FMarta%2520art.htm, Stand 12.04.2012

o. V. Internet ist in Polen zweitstärkstes Medium für Werbung http://www.gtai.de/GTAI/Navigation/DE/Trade/maerkte,did=211092.html, Stand 15.04.2012

Andrew  Piekarski, Marketing in Polen http://translate.google.de/translate?hl=de&langpair=en%7Cde&u=http://www.polandbusiness.com.pl/marketing-in-poland/, Stand 17.04.2012

Australien

Fischer Weltalmanach 2010

Duncan, Classic Australian TV Ads, in http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2006/classic-australian-tv-ads/, Stand 02.04.2012

o. V.,  Weltweite Werbeausgaben steigen weiter, in  http://www.absatzwirtschaft.de/content/communication/news/weltweite-werbeausgaben-steigen-weiter;72957;0,  Stand 04.04.2012

http://www.facebook.com/vegemite, Stand 10.04.2012

http://www.facebook.com/Billabong, Stand 12.04.2012

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Billabong-Germany/406534041006, Stand 15.04.2012

International Observer

Cci „Online Media Use in Australia“

Latin America:

The Best of Latin American Marketing in 2009

http://adage.com/article/global-news/advertising-latin-american-marketing-2009/141542/,  Stand, 17.04.2012

http://translate.google.de/translate?hl=de&sl=en&tl=de&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.globalresearch.ca%2Findex.php%3Fcontext%3Dva%26aid%3D9475&anno=2, 18.04.2012

USA

Dan Frommer, Why Everyone Wants A Piece Of The TV Advertising Pie in : http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-07-07/tech/30048336_1_ad-spending-online-advertising-ad-business#ixzz1sxowkAWn, Stand  04.04.2012

Brad Dick, New optical storage technology in,   http://blog.broadcastengineering.com/brad/2010/06/22/new-optical-storage-technology/ Stand 06.04.2012

Leo Himmelbauer, Werbeausgaben auf 110 Milliarden Dollar gestiegen http://www.wirtschaftsblatt.at/home/international/unternehmen/werbeausgaben-auf-110-milliarden-dollar-gestiegen-430724/index.do, Stand 10.04.2012

Statista, Prognose der Entwicklung der Werbeausgaben in ausgewählten Ländern weltweit im Jahr 2011 und 2012 (gegenüber Vorjahr),

 o. V. http://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/215045/umfrage/entwicklung-der-werbeausgaben-in-ausgewaehlten-laendern-gegenueber-vorjahr/, Stand 11.04.2012

Über Prof. Dr. Heike Simmet

Prof. Dr. Heike Simmet Professorin für Betriebswirtschaft Speaker und Beraterin
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